- Patient supine with legs straight.
- Examiner stabilizes lateral ankle and applies a medial to lateral (varus) force at the knee.
- Procedure is then repeated with the knee slightly flexed (-25°).
Positive Varus Stress Test
Pain: Lateral collateral ligament strain.
Increased motion/gapping: Lateral collateral ligament rupture.
Synonym: Adduction Stress Test
The term varus refers to the distal bone moving medially.
Grade 1 – 0-5 mm of joint opening, no instability
Grade 2 – 5-10 mm of joint opening, mild instability
Grade 3 – 10-15 mm of joint opening, moderate instability
Grade 4 – >15 mm of joint opening, severe instability