1. Patient supine with legs straight
  2. Examiner stabilizes medial ankle & applies a lateral to medial (valgus) force at the knee
  3. Procedure is then repeated with the knee slightly flexed (-25°)

Valgus Stress Test - Knee examination for medical collateral ligament rupture.


Positive Valgus Stress Test

Pain: Medial collateral ligament strain

Increased motion/gapping: Medial collateral ligament rupture

Clinical Notes

Synonym: Abduction Stress Test

The term valgus refers to the distal bone moving laterally

Medial collateral ligament injury classification

Grade 1 – 0-5 mm of joint opening, no instability

Grade 2 – 5-10 mm of joint opening, mild instability

Grade 3 – 10-15 mm of joint opening, moderate instability

Grade 4 – >15 mm of joint opening, severe instability